Periodontal diseases range from simple gum inflammation to serious disease that results in major damage to the soft tissue and bone that support the teeth. The periodontium consists of four structures: gingiva (gum), alveolar bone (socket where the tooth root is held), cementum (outer lining of root), and the periodontal ligament (ligament that holds the tooth in place).
Our mouths are full of bacteria. These bacteria, along with mucus and other particles, constantly form a sticky, colorless “plaque” on teeth. Brushing and flossing help get rid of plaque. Plaque that is not removed can harden and form “tartar” that brushing doesn’t clean. Only a professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove tartar.
Surgical Treatments for Gum Disease -
- Flap surgery/pocket reduction surgery : During this procedure the gums are lifted back and the tarter is removed. The gums are then placed so that the tissue fits snugly around the tooth. This method reduces the size of the space between the gum and tooth, thereby decreasing the areas where harmful bacteria can grow .
- Bone grafts : This procedure involves using fragments of your own bone, synthetic bone, or donated bone to replace bone destroyed by gum disease.
- Soft tissue grafts :This procedure reinforces thin gums or fills in places where gums have receded. Grafted tissue, most often taken from the roof of the mouth, is stitched in place, adding tissue to the affected area.
- Guided tissue regeneration : Performed when the bone supporting your teeth has been destroyed, this procedure stimulates bone and gum tissue growth.
- Bone surgery : Smoothes shallow craters in the bone due to moderate and advanced bone loss.